Facts About Narcolepsy

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological condition that impairs the brain’s ability to regulate the sleep-wake cycle. It affects 1 in 2,000 people—200,000 Americans and 3 million people worldwide.

Narcolepsy Symptoms

Symptoms vary by person but may include:

  • Excessive daytime sleepiness: Periods of extreme sleepiness during the day that feel comparable to how someone without narcolepsy would feel after staying awake for 48-72 hours.
  • Cataplexy: Striking, sudden episodes of muscle weakness usually triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, exhilaration, surprise, or anger. The severity may vary from a slackening of the jaw or buckling of the knees to falling down. The duration may be for a few seconds to several minutes and the person remains fully conscious (even if unable to speak) during the episode.
  • Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations: Visual, auditory, or tactile hallucinations upon falling asleep or waking up. These can be frightening and confusing.
  • Sleep paralysis: The inability to move for a few seconds or minutes upon falling asleep or waking up. It is often accompanied by hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations.
  • Disrupted nighttime sleep: Unlike public perceptions, people with narcolepsy do not sleep all the time. Timing of sleepiness is “off” with narcolepsy so one may fight sleepiness during the day but struggle to sleep at night.
Types of Narcolepsy

There are two forms of narcolepsy: type 1 narcolepsy with cataplexy and type 2 narcolepsy without cataplexy. Recent research suggests that type 1 narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by a lack of hypocretin, a key neurotransmitter that helps sustain alertness and regulate the sleep-wake cycle. Less is known about type 2 narcolepsy without cataplexy.

Idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) is a chronic neurological disorder marked by an insatiable need to sleep that is not eased by a full night’s slumber. Learn more about IH via the Hypersomnia Foundation.


Diagnosis typically relies on a 24-hour sleep study that includes a nighttime portion (polysomnogram) and daytime nap portion (multiple sleep latency test). The diagnosis is mainly based on how quickly and frequently one’s brain enters rapid eye movement sleep (REM)/dream sleep during these tests.

If you suspect that you or a loved one could have narcolepsy, it is important to consult an AASM board-certified sleep medicine doctor. To find a local sleep specialist or accredited sleep center, visit www.sleepeducation.org.

Narcolepsy Treatment

There is currently no cure for narcolepsy. Treatment for symptom management varies widely by person and it often takes a long time to find the right combination of treatments.

Treatments may include:

  • Nighttime and histamine-directed medications to decrease excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy
  • Wake-promoting or stimulant medications to increase alertness
  • Antidepressant medication to decrease cataplexy
  • Scheduled daytime naps

Coping strategies vary widely by person but may include:

Facts about Narcolepsy

  • Social support such as meet-up groups or social media
  • Improvement in general health and wellness through sleep hygiene, diet, and fitness

Because of low awareness (even among physicians) and misperceptions, there is an average of 8 to 15 years between narcolepsy symptom onset and diagnosis. It’s estimated that the majority of people with narcolepsy are currently undiagnosed or misdiagnosed (common misdiagnoses include epilepsy, depression, and schizophrenia).

Project Sleep’s Rising Voices program empowers patient-advocates
to share their stories and improve public understanding of sleep disorders.


Illustrations by Elle Wales.
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